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Mongol Uls
Монгол улс
Erdene Zuu

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Map of Mongolia








Most famous for the conquest of much of the Eurasian landmass in the 13th century under the leadership of Chinggis Khan, the Mongols proved an important military and administrative influence on many European and Asian civilizations. States centered in Mongolia dominated Inner Asia for more than two thousand years but Chinggis Khan's Mongol Empire was the height of Mongolian and Eurasian steppe power and was the largest contiguous empire in history. Although notorious for their conquests, the Mongols famously promoted cultural, material, and intellectual exchange across Eurasia. The Mongol Empire became increasingly fragmented in the 14th century as the Mongol khanates splintered or were replaced by local dynasties. During the 17th century the Mongolian steppe was conquered and incorporated into the Manchu Qing Empire, with most of Inner Mongolia joining the Manchus after the death of Ligden Khan, the last ruling Chinggisid khan in Mongolia, in 1634, while Outer Mongolia joined in 1691 due to the rise of the Züngars.

In 1911, Outer Mongolia declared independence from the weakening of the Qing Dynasty under the incarnate lama Bogd Khan. Bogd Khan's reign was marked by foreign invasions, both from China and White Russian Guard. In 1921 Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, reestablished independence and founded the Mongolians People's Republic in 1924 . When the Bogd Khan died in 1924, the country was officially declared a socialist state, the Mongolian People's Republic (MPRP). Mongolia under the MPRP retained a close relationship, according to some even a satellite status, with the Soviet Union. In 1990, Mongolia underwent a peaceful democratic revolution that brought and end to nearly 70 years of socialism. In the decades since, Mongolia has moved increasingly towards the West in its economic and political orientation, and has continued to encourage foreign business and aid in the country's growing natural resource development and mining projects. Although the capital city Ulaanbaatar continues to grow, a large portion of the population continues to live a nomadic pastoral lifestyle by herding animals, as people have done for thousands of years on the Mongolian plateau.